Dpf Soot Mass Limit

The results verified the expected reduction of engine-out particulate mass (PM) emissions with increasing FAME content and the reduction. In fact, after only 33,000 miles, the amount of ash in the DPF may equal the amount of soot (prior to regeneration), and after 150,000 miles, nearly 80% of the material trapped in the DPF is ash. For a given regeneration condition the soot load to reach a given peak temperature inside the filter is strongly correlated to its thermal mass. We found that the soot mass limit of the re-crystallized SiC filter segments which consisted of the coarse and fine SiC powder was not lowered even if the grain size of the coarse power was increased. 129 ml Particle Filter Oil Ash Volume. This will only occur if the soot mass present in the filter is below a set upper limit. 9 l Fuel Consumption Since last Regen. Diesel particulate filter - Wikipedia. I've had this lower previously, so again, looking for a healthy engine value. Diesel vehicles have become increasingly popular across the world as diesel engine technology continues to advance due to their superior fuel economy over petrol vehicles. The latter uses the simulated soot mass flow of the engine as well as other exhaust gas parameters and takes a limit DPF model into account to predict sensor behaviour downstream DPF. Most engine management systems will actively regenerate the DPF when the car is driven at speeds above 40mph for around 10 to 15 minutes. Soot mass limit: 14 g/l: 6 g/l: Weight: 0,8 kg/l: 0,4 kg/l: CAUTION WITH CORDIERITE: The lower heat resistance of cordierite results in faster overheating and even melting of the Diesel Particulate Filter. 00 g IDE06059 Particulate filter: oil ash mass 12. Ignition ON. If the DPF temperature is low (light load driving) the Soot AR can go to 85% before the DPF warning light comes on (vehicle speed request). Particle Filter Carbon Mass (act. Download : Download full-size image; Fig. The catalytic-coated DPF is situated close to the Engine, therefore the exhaust gas temperature is high enough (500 C) to ignite the soot particles. 11g From the numbers above, can anyone tell me what the capacity of the DPF is for ash? If 57g is close to full, then I understand why it may need to be replaced. 7 liter engine. The loaded DPF has to be regenerated by burning off the trapped soot, i. P0101FC mass airflow sensor 1 has a malfunction Stored. Oct 26, 2020 · If the DPF Soot Accumulation increases to 140%, DTC P2463 (DPF Soot Accumulation) will set and a service regeneration will be required to clean the DPF. Abstract When the active regeneration of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) occurs during a drop to idle (DTI) process, a massive amount of heat accumulates in the DPF, leading to a rather high peak temperature and a large temperature gradient, which can damage the DPF. Then scroll down the list on the right hand window and select soot mass calculated and soot mass measured. The amount of soot on the DPF helps to determine how often and when to start or stop a regeneration. Furthermore, after 240,000 km, ash is more than 80% of the material trapped in the DPF, including the minority of soot. Most engine management systems will actively regenerate the DPF when the car is driven at speeds above 40mph for around 10 to 15 minutes. The truck's programming will make many repeated attempts to regenerate the DPF, from a high soot mass level of 65% down to <10% when a cycle is complete. soot loaded pressure drop, 2) reduced thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up of a downstream SCR system, and 3) decreased soot mass limit requirements due to the expected trend towards engines operating at higher. It uses algorithms to calculate the soot mass. Soot mass collected in this way would have a smaller impact on backpressure than soot forced. How to check DPF Soot Mass and do a force regenertion on Hyundai's diesel engines. 001 g/km or less. If the engine isn’t able to burn the soot. Soot on the DPF was determined by weighing the DPF module periodically. In response to this, existing Euro Emissions Standards were tightened and greater. New particulate filters can capture from 30% to greater than 95% of the harmful soot. In other words, the amount of ash is equal to the amount of soot at the maximum permissible soot load limit of 6 g / L. The loaded DPF has to be regenerated by burning off the trapped soot, i. Over a span of 50 h, soot on the DPF reached a balance point far below the soot mass limit of the DPF material. One of the indices indicating the thermal shock resistance of the DPF is soot mass limit, which is an important factor determining the penalty of vehicle fuel consumption. Easy2Fit kits are available at: Legal information; Contact form;. look around MB 240 or so, and in the listing of advance measuring values. 00 g IDE07528-MAS12283 Coordinator releases for DPF regeneration-Components and systems fault-free Condition met. soot loaded pressure drop, 2) reduced thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up of a downstream SCR system, and 3) decreased soot mass limit requirements due to the expected trend towards engines operating at higher. How to check DPF Soot Mass and do a force regenertion on Hyundai's diesel engines. Thread starter Robin Chandler; Start date Jul 1, 2018; Robin Chandler Registered User. New particulate filters can capture from 30% to greater than 95% of the harmful soot. 2 mg/km -PM limit EU 6: 4. 0 Quattro Mmi 2g high, sat nav , Bluetooth, Ami So my dpf is 40ml full of ash and my limit is 175ml. This will only occur if the soot mass present in the filter is below a set upper limit. corrected for exhaust volumetric flow, as well as the cumulative soot mass over the cycle. Jul 13, 2015 · The soot created by the process of combustion which is collected in the filter is burnt off to make sure that the filter does not become blocked and that it can carry on trapping more soot. The most important aspect of the evaluation measurements was the soot mass and number emissions due to the very low limit that will be set by the Euro 5 standards. There are two soot level readings in GDS2. such as when climbing inclines or maintaining the speed limit fully loaded on level ground, it can go negative. The truck loading cycle is one of the most transient operations for non-road applications. Then scroll down the list on the right hand window and select soot mass calculated and soot mass measured. As my current mileage is 21498 miles (after the journey) and the ash load limit for the particulate filter is 80g, My filter should have have 80g of ash in it at about 153k miles if we don't assume that oil consumption/ash generation was much worse during running in (which it probably was). If your trip is too short and the engine is then shut off, or the truck is put in park with the engine idling, an active regeneration process stops (at whatever soot level the DPF is at). To do this, it is necessary to differentiate between two systems – the diesel particulate filter with additive and the. Soot mass was 27~g, cruise on 60mph, coolant around 76c, manually kept it at 4th and 5th depending on traffic. IDE00434-ENG102050 Particle filter: soot mass calculated-MASS_SOOT_SIM_PF 16. 001 g/km or less. If your trip is too short and the engine is then shut off, or the truck is put in park with the engine idling, an active regeneration process stops (at whatever soot level the DPF is at). Replaced £1100 clean. The soot mass in the DPF is mathematically calculated based on the amount of fuel used and the pressure differential between the exhaust gasses before and after the filter. corrected for exhaust volumetric flow, as well as the cumulative soot mass over the cycle. 08 g IDE00435-ENG101197 Particle filter: soot mass measured-MASS_SOOT_PHY_PF -3. soot mass limit; or the wall thickness can be maintained at previous levels, but soot mass limit is increased 2-3 grams/liter while maintaining the same back pressure as the previous version. X-ray measurement of soot mass by accumulating difference signal across sooted section. Download Citation | Soot mass limit analysis of SiC DPF | In re-crystallized SiC segment filter made of coarse and fine grains, the amount of soot mass limit did not change when mean size of. Take A Sneak Peak At The Movies Coming Out This Week (8/12) Phoenix Movie Theaters: A Complete Guide. • Investigate velocity dependence of PM sensor signal and compensation techniques. Soot on the DPF was determined by weighing the DPF module periodically. Obviously different types of driving will yield different results. the car regens approx every 300 miles, but it regens from 21g soot down too 8g soot and then stops?the figures i have at the moment are oil/ash 11. If you set parameters in Carly like the above, you can keep an eye on the DPF The soot mass on mine builds to about 15g(roughly 250-300 km) then it will regen, the temp before filter will go up over 500c then it will start burning off and the soot figure starts to drop. Over a span of 50 h, soot on the DPF reached a balance point far below the soot mass limit of the DPF material. At similar rates to the deposition at other times. Summary of the new AT DPF for LDD applications, and resulting attributes. The soot mass limit of the DPF is determined. 98 g - current soot filling. Durability Study on Si-SiC Material for DPF (2) 2004-01-0951. The latter uses the simulated soot mass flow of the engine as well as other exhaust gas parameters and takes a limit DPF model into account to predict sensor behaviour downstream DPF. 0 Soot Load(g) Measured So, it seems to me like the flow through the unit is okay, but I'm a bit concerned about the 129ml of "oil ash volume. 1 Soot Load (g) Calculated. Soot mass collected in this way would have a smaller impact on backpressure than soot forced. 2 km Golf 6 1. Parametric analysis. 40ml in 40,000 miles. 1 Soot Load (g) Calculated. 1 Soot G/L: 0. Thread starter Robin Chandler; Start date Jul 1, 2018; Robin Chandler Registered User. Soot on the DPF was determined by weighing the DPF module periodically. corrected for exhaust volumetric flow, as well as the cumulative soot mass over the cycle. Booked in with large independent garage for diagnosis, they said 87% full and really needed replacing as it wouldn't regen on the vehicle. Soot Accumulation-DPF problems. 175ml I think is the limit for a 2. 5 After driving 40 miles of mixed highway/city driving, my readings are: Soot %: 74. Soot, as one part of the particulates, will be oxidised during the regeneration. The DPF was sized to reduce the soot particle emissions of the engine equipped with EGR to below the stage IIIB limit while meeting the target clean filter pressure drop of 50 mbar at rated power. The catalytic-coated DPF is situated close to the Engine, therefore the exhaust gas temperature is high enough (500 C) to ignite the soot particles. If cracking occurs on a filter,. 392 Particle filter; soot mass calculated 19. 21 g IDE06060 Particulate filter ash load limit 110. DPF system requires the material possessing high thermal shock resistance against an unexpected accident, such as an uncontrolled regeneration. One of the indices indicating the thermal shock resistance of the DPF is soot mass limit, which is an important factor determining the penalty of vehicle fuel consumption. Soot, as one part of the particulates, will be oxidised during the regeneration. soot deposited on a single pore of an SiC DPF at two stages during pore filling. So my dpf is 40ml full of ash and my limit is 175ml. Soot Mass Limit & regeneration The unique capability of the DPG to both load a filter with soot and regenerate it enables an automated cycle to establish the soot mass limit (SML) for a given filter. Particle Filter Carbon Mass (spec. When DTC P2463 sets, the ECM will no longer try to perform a driving regeneration and the vehicle will require the more controlled service regeneration. Below the lower limit physical exhaust pressure sensor from the turbine area, Code: 004D96 Soot mass=9. Particulate filter ash load limit: 110. A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a filter that captures and stores exhaust soot (some refer to them as soot traps) in order to reduce emissions from diesel cars. soot mass limit; or the wall thickness can be maintained at previous levels, but soot mass limit is increased 2-3 grams/liter while maintaining the same back pressure as the previous version. There is a risk of thermal damage to the DPF filter otherwise. The release of soot particles that are produced during co mbustion can be prevented by external engine measures. This is sometimes known as the Soot Mass Limit (SML) or Maximum Soot Load (MSL). A clean was given as option but the price was prohibitive. Fill level of DPF 150% Soot content of DPF 18. 2009 GMC Sierra 2500HD SLE CC/SB 4x4 LMM. 2g---- soot measured minus-2. If the DPF Soot Accumulation increases to 115% and the system has not been able to regenerate, the “Continue Driving” message will display on the Driver Information Center (DIC). The DPF model calculates the filtration efficiency of a DPF failed at the threshold limit and provides the DPF-out soot emissions to be used as input to the sensor model. Diesel Particulate Filter Efficiency Below Threshold Particle Filter Soot mass quantity above maximum threshold. During the course of trying to tune LMM, the DPF clogged up, and created yet another major headache with DIC warnings and the P2463 soot code. 00 g IDE06059 Particulate filter: oil ash mass 12. As you drive, the car’s computer constantly monitors the soot level inside the filter to determine when regeneration is necessary. One of the indices indicating the thermal shock resistance of the DPF is soot mass limit, which is an important factor determining the penalty of vehicle fuel consumption. 00 g - maximum possible ash filling. Soot on the DPF was determined by weighing the DPF module periodically. When I was having DPF trouble with the LML I had, I drove around with a GM tech & he was keeping track of the grams of soot with his tech 2. See full list on ctscorp. DPF system requires the material possessing high thermal shock resistance against an unexpected accident, such as an uncontrolled regeneration. Soot Accumulation-DPF problems. P246385 The soot content of the dpf is not OK- There is a signal above the permissible limit value. Mazda cx5 dpf regeneration process. HCI and Differential pressure sensor are new, and working correctly. 35 g IDE04092 Diesel particle filter bank 1 3. DPF is an acronym for Diesel Particulate Filter. IDE00435 Particle filter: soot mass measured 3. 0 TDI, not sure what it is for a 3. Figure 1 best illustrates the magnitude of the problem, as it presents the ash fraction of the total mass of material accumulated in the DPF (ash and soot), assuming a 6 g/L maximum soot load limit [2667]. Active ‘regeneration’ is when the ECU intervenes when the soot loading in the DPF is calculated to be 45%. The function carries out a forced diesel particulate filter dynamic regeneration. The function will determine the soot mass and if it is above the upper limit this function will terminate and you will be instructed to replace the particulate filter. ), a forced regeneration while driving is also possible. Soot mass limit. 001 g/km or less. The vehicle does not have a soot level sensor to determine how much soot is in the DPF. One is the lower maximum-temperature inside of the DPF during usual regeneration in order to preserve the catalyst performance. ) Particle Filter Carbon Mass (act. 00 g - maximum possible ash filling. DPF soot loading over NEDC. Dpf plugged up so I changed it out with a new one, Before changing the old one the soot was at 71g, with reduced power message, service regen didnt not drop the soot level. on the DPF regeneration frequency by repeatedly running a Euro 5 multi-cylinder bench engine over the European regulatory cycle (NEDC) until a specified soot loading limit had been reached. Soot Accumulation-DPF problems. I dont think its completed yet, regen count is at 520 still. Save a new value of 1 to reset the learned Carbon Mass. 5 After driving 40 miles of mixed highway/city driving, my readings are: Soot %: 74. This is sometimes known as the Soot Mass Limit (SML) or Maximum Soot Load (MSL). Soot Mass Limit & regeneration The unique capability of the DPG to both load a filter with soot and regenerate it enables an automated cycle to establish the soot mass limit (SML) for a given filter. This corresponds to: o typically 0. 0 Time elapsed since Regeneration. It uses algorithms to calculate the soot mass. If your trip is too short and the engine is then shut off, or the truck is put in park with the engine idling, an active regeneration process stops (at whatever soot level the DPF is at). Jul 1, 2018 #1 Hi folks, After a bit of info on the wife's 2. 00 g IDE00435 Particle filter: soot mass measured 0. 26 g IDE00436-ENG102397 Particle filter: kilometers since last regeneration-DIST_RGN 245 miles Address 01: Engine (03L 906 023 A) 09:35:58 IDE00019 Voltage terminal 30 14. On the basis of Figure 2, after only 53,000 km on the road, about 50% of the material accumulated in the DPF is ash. The standard practice for simple DPF models is to use a constant filtration efficiency calculated based on measurement of soot concentration upstream and downstream of a. 0 Quattro Mmi 2g high, sat nav , Bluetooth, Ami So my dpf is 40ml full of ash and my limit is 175ml. So my dpf is 40ml full of ash and my limit is 175ml. If your trip is too short and the engine is then shut off, or the truck is put in park with the engine idling, an active regeneration process stops (at whatever soot level the DPF is at). If the DPF gets hot enough it'll start to burn off the soot slowly but obviously an active regeneration is more effective and quicker. Figure 1 best illustrates the magnitude of the problem, as it presents the ash fraction of the total mass of material accumulated in the DPF (ash and soot), assuming a 6 g/L maximum soot load limit [2667]. 35 g IDE04092 Diesel particle filter bank 1 3. The catalytic-coated DPF is situated close to the Engine, therefore the exhaust gas temperature is high enough (500 C) to ignite the soot particles. 001 g/km or less. Global thermal response in the DPF ACCUMULATED SOOT MASS LIMIT The soot limit was determined in the test method [2], which simulates uncontrolled regeneration that cannot be expected. To do this, it is necessary to differentiate between two systems – the diesel particulate filter with additive and the. Current and Stored. You are probably correct about the quantity produced. Booked in with large independent garage for diagnosis, they said 87% full and really needed replacing as it wouldn't regen on the vehicle. Figure 1 best illustrates the size of the problem because it represents the proportion of ash in the total mass of material accumulated in the DPF (ash and soot), assuming a maximum load of 6 g / L. The program will only be executed when there is less than 60 grams of soot present in the filter. soot mass limit; or the wall thickness can be maintained at previous levels, but soot mass limit is increased 2-3 grams/liter while maintaining the same back pressure as the previous version. Durability Study on Si-SiC Material for DPF (2) 2004-01-0951. As high as 96, dropping to 25 after the regen. In fact, after only 33,000 miles, the amount of ash in the DPF may equal the amount of soot (prior to regeneration), and after 150,000 miles, nearly 80% of the material trapped in the DPF is ash. As you drive, the car’s computer constantly monitors the soot level inside the filter to determine when regeneration is necessary. The truck loading cycle is one of the most transient operations for non-road applications. New particulate filters can capture from 30% to greater than 95% of the harmful soot. 5 g ---soot calculated 13. This is sometimes known as the Soot Mass Limit (SML) or Maximum Soot Load (MSL). 392 Particle filter; soot mass calculated 19. After installing a new dpf, the soot level is still at 71, with reduced power. 70g HELP Thanks in advance. The function will determine the soot mass and if it is above the upper limit this function will terminate and you will be instructed to replace the particulate filter. If you set parameters in Carly like the above, you can keep an eye on the DPF The soot mass on mine builds to about 15g(roughly 250-300 km) then it will regen, the temp before filter will go up over 500c then it will start burning off and the soot figure starts to drop. In case of catalyzed DPF, it depends on the following two properties during soot regeneration. Soot, as one part of the particulates, will be oxidised during the regeneration. Soot Mass Limit (SML) Drop‐to‐idle test was demonstrated for Octo‐square‐SiC and Hex‐SC‐AT with engine test bench. HCI and Differential pressure sensor are new, and working correctly. Soot and other particles from diesel engines worsen the particulate matter pollution in the air and are harmful to health. This can provide a simple means of de-greening filters, regeneration after soot loading tests, or allow more complicated studies such as Soot Mass Limit tests, where the DPG's improved reproducibility and repeatability offer substantial advantages. 1 Soot G/L: 0. So my dpf is 40ml full of ash and my limit is 175ml. Into the -1 to -90 range. 00 g - maximum possible ash filling. 05 g - current ash filling. This vehicle came in with the DPF light coming on during driving, as an older model the "soot mass" is not displayed but we can see the backpressure readings. A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a filter that captures and stores exhaust soot (some refer to them as soot traps) in order to reduce emissions from diesel cars. 8 X-ray response (a. Soot on the DPF was determined by weighing the DPF module periodically. Impact of engine warm-up and DPF active regeneration on … 33 2. the maximum temperature in the filter and the soot load. Furthermore, after 240,000 km, ash is more than 80% of the material trapped in the DPF, including the minority of soot. DTC P2002 Fault Symptoms: "DPF FULL VISIT DEALER". Due to the combustion, soot and other particulate matters are formed and pass through the exhaust gas. The spikes in the soot rate are not due to time alignment errors, and are often due to a very rapid transient increase in particle size (see Fig. In case of catalyzed DPF, it depends on the following two properties during soot regeneration. The other symptom is only a small amount of < 60kh/hr driving will trigger the car to fall over the limit of DPF fault (flashing coil and 50% power mode). 175ml I think is the limit for a 2. You are probably correct about the quantity produced. The catalytic-coated DPF is situated close to the Engine, therefore the exhaust gas temperature is high enough (500 C) to ignite the soot particles. 001 g/km or less. The other is the higher thermal resistance against the unusual regeneration of excess amount of soot. When the soot level reaches a certain threshold, usually around 45%, the engine will actively try to reduce the levels. 67 g IDE00436-ENG102397 Particle filter: kilometers since last regeneration-DIST_RGN 119. Particle Filter Carbon Mass (act. 1 mg/kWh -PM limit EU VI: 10 mg/kWh o typically 0. 2 km Golf 6 1. Mazda cx5 dpf regeneration process. To do this, it is necessary to differentiate between two systems – the diesel particulate filter with additive and the. The spikes in the soot rate are not due to time alignment errors, and are often due to a very rapid transient increase in particle size (see Fig. [Security Access -16] Enter the code shown in the VCDS pop-up balloon for "Adaptation Enabling". 0 Soot Load (g) Measured. good morning guys, i have a (uk) 2010 golf 1. With an optimal diesel particulate filter (DPF), soot emissions may be decreased to 0. Diesel particulate filter regeneration frequency code. 00 g IDE06059 Particulate filter: oil ash mass 12. A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a filter that captures and stores exhaust soot (some refer to them as soot traps) in order to reduce emissions from diesel cars. 70 grams –160% Soot Loading 1)P2463 Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) sets, 2)Reduced Engine Power,. 00 g IDE00435 Particle filter: soot mass measured 0. Fill level of DPF 150% Soot content of DPF 18. Most engine management systems will actively regenerate the DPF when the car is driven at speeds above 40mph for around 10 to 15 minutes. The soot mass limit of the DPF is determined. There seems to be an even better correlation between soot and PN (PMP) When the MSS is sampling from the tailpipe with dilution ratios between 2 and 5, it is sensitive enough to measure the soot mass when PN is at the certification limit When the MSS doesn't see any soot at all, the engine will quote likely not fail certification according to PMP. New particulate filters can capture from 30% to greater than 95% of the harmful soot. I dont think its completed yet, regen count is at 520 still. Due to the combustion, soot and other particulate matters are formed and pass through the exhaust gas. • Investigate velocity dependence of PM sensor signal and compensation techniques. 3 Soot G/L: 1. Those particulates will be trapped in the particulate filter, where only gaseous components can pass through the porous structure of the filter. 70g Ash mass=57. Diesel particulate filter - Wikipedia. Figure 1 best illustrates the magnitude of the problem, as it presents the ash fraction of the total mass of material accumulated in the DPF (ash and soot), assuming a 6 g/L maximum soot load limit [2667]. IDE00434-ENG102050 Particle filter: soot mass calculated-MASS_SOOT_SIM_PF 16. Small soot mass accumulation results in lower DPF pressure drop, while high soot mass accumulation would yield higher DPF pressure drop. 6 tdi , i have run a full diagnostic and its all clear, the problem i have is with the dpf readings /functioning. 00 g IDE07528-MAS12283 Coordinator releases for DPF regeneration-Components and systems fault-free Condition met. 69 g) 393 Particle filter; soot mass measured 4. 9 l Fuel Consumption Since last Regen. Diesel particulate filter - Wikipedia. On the basis of Figure 2, after only 53,000 km on the road, about 50% of the material accumulated in the DPF is ash. 1 g IDE06060 Particulate filter ash load limit 80. With an optimal diesel particulate filter (DPF), soot emissions may be decreased to 0. • in the soot model. It uses algorithms to calculate the soot mass. Over a span of 50 h, soot on the DPF reached a balance point far below the soot mass limit of the DPF material. Parametric analysis. Impact of engine warm-up and DPF active regeneration on … 33 2. coatings in filter regeneration. This can be seen as the reduction of soot particles by means of a particulate filter system. IDE00435 Particle filter: soot mass measured 3. I've had this lower previously, so again, looking for a healthy engine value. New particulate filters can capture from 30% to greater than 95% of the harmful soot. 392 Particle filter; soot mass calculated 19. 21 g IDE06060 Particulate filter ash load limit 110. 2 mg/km -PM limit EU 6: 4. A clean was given as option but the price was prohibitive. Soot and other particles from diesel engines worsen the particulate matter pollution in the air and are harmful to health. the maximum temperature in the filter and the soot load. If your trip is too short and the engine is then shut off, or the truck is put in park with the engine idling, an active regeneration process stops (at whatever soot level the DPF is at). The standard practice for simple DPF models is to use a constant filtration efficiency calculated based on measurement of soot concentration upstream and downstream of a. 03 g IDE01410 Charge limit over-charge 50. Oct 26, 2020 · If the DPF Soot Accumulation increases to 140%, DTC P2463 (DPF Soot Accumulation) will set and a service regeneration will be required to clean the DPF. 21 g IDE06060 Particulate filter ash load limit 110. This can be seen as the reduction of soot particles by means of a particulate filter system. The release of soot particles that are produced during co mbustion can be prevented by external engine measures. Figure 6 shows the soot mass filtration efficiency (determined using an AVL415 soot meter) measured on a DPG following low flow regenerations for a clean part and for. 69 g) 393 Particle filter; soot mass measured 4. Soot and other particles from diesel engines worsen the particulate matter pollution in the air and are harmful to health. 6 grams Ash content 0. If you set parameters in Carly like the above, you can keep an eye on the DPF The soot mass on mine builds to about 15g(roughly 250-300 km) then it will regen, the temp before filter will go up over 500c then it will start burning off and the soot figure starts to drop. The truck's programming will make many repeated attempts to regenerate the DPF, from a high soot mass level of 65% down to <10% when a cycle is complete. Most engine management systems will actively regenerate the DPF when the car is driven at speeds above 40mph for around 10 to 15 minutes. Soot is a natural byproduct from the combustion of diesel fuel. Over a span of 50 h, soot on the DPF reached a balance point far below the soot mass limit of the DPF material. ) 17:09:27 Group 241: DPF Soot load 129 ml Particle Filter Oil Ash Volume 6. 5 mg/km ⇒ The detection limit of the photoacousticmeasurement is 20 to 100 times lower than the EU particulate limits. In response to this, existing Euro Emissions Standards were tightened and greater. The catalytic-coated DPF is situated close to the Engine, therefore the exhaust gas temperature is high enough (500 C) to ignite the soot particles. I have some questions, naturally. corrected for exhaust volumetric flow, as well as the cumulative soot mass over the cycle. I think the max is either 80g or 0. Particulate filter ash load limit: 110. A typical range would be between 15% and 65% (this is the point where an active regen normally starts). See label above visor. Engine OFF. This can provide a simple means of de-greening filters, regeneration after soot loading tests, or allow more complicated studies such as Soot Mass Limit tests, where the DPG's improved reproducibility and repeatability offer substantial advantages. 5 tankfulls I've ran through it, I've scene the soot. DTC P2463. This value increases to ~30 g, afterburning takes place (the amount of soot decreases, the amount of ash increases), the value. 98 g - current soot filling. If the DPF Soot Accumulation increases to 115% and the system has not been able to regenerate, the “Continue Driving” message will display on the Driver Information Center (DIC). DETECTION LIMITS Assume a continuous exhaust concentration of 10 µg/m³ PM or soot. 40/---/--- kPa IDE04652 Exhaust gas jet volume in particle filter 131. DPF system requires the material possessing high thermal shock resistance against an unexpected accident, such as an uncontrolled regeneration. Soot Accumulation-DPF problems. such as when climbing inclines or maintaining the speed limit fully loaded on level ground, it can go negative. This application performs a mandatory DPF dynamic regeneration. Abstract When the active regeneration of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) occurs during a drop to idle (DTI) process, a massive amount of heat accumulates in the DPF, leading to a rather high peak temperature and a large temperature gradient, which can damage the DPF. Usually, the limiting factor is represented by the maximum temperatures and gradients which are reached during an uncontrolled regeneration: if these parameters exceed the material. A regeneration is triggered when the filter needs to be cleaned. This parameter represents the maximum amount of soot that can be stored inside the filter without damaging the component during regeneration. 175ml I think is the limit for a 2. Once the ash reaches a maximum limit that's when the dpf has to be replaced. 7 liter engine. Obviously different types of driving will yield different results. Figure 1 best illustrates the magnitude of the problem, as it presents the ash fraction of the total mass of material accumulated in the DPF (ash and soot), assuming a 6 g/L maximum soot load limit [2667]. Diesel Particulate Filter Efficiency Below Threshold Particle Filter Soot mass quantity above maximum threshold. I've had this lower previously, so again, looking for a healthy engine value. You are probably correct about the quantity produced. This can be seen as the reduction of soot particles by means of a particulate filter system. On the basis of Figure 2, after only 53,000 km on the road, about 50% of the material accumulated in the DPF is ash. the soot mass limit was kept constant at 12 g/L for the grains of 10 to 25 urn in size. The truck's programming will make many repeated attempts to regenerate the DPF, from a high soot mass level of 65% down to <10% when a cycle is complete. 69 g) 393 Particle filter; soot mass measured 4. I loaded some new PID's into Torque and am monitoring DPF soot percentage, and soot grams/liter. 1 m³/h IDE05357 Current temperature in NOx reducing catalytic converter 51. DETECTION LIMITS Assume a continuous exhaust concentration of 10 µg/m³ PM or soot. Parametric analysis. - DPF external dimensions - DPF cell structure - Initial soot loading Parameters varied in the parametric analysis - Number of segments - Wall porosity: 42% to 70% - Cement thermal expansion coefficient: 25% to 400% of baseline value The soot mass limit is evaluated for axial stresses only. 70g HELP Thanks in advance. Jul 1, 2018 #1 Hi folks, After a bit of info on the wife's 2. Soot, as one part of the particulates, will be oxidised during the regeneration. Below the lower limit physical exhaust pressure sensor from the turbine area, Code: 004D96 Soot mass=9. 00 g IDE00435 Particle filter: soot mass measured 0. Among the durability items of the DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter), high accumulated soot mass limit is important for the low fuel consumption and also for the robustness. 5 mg/km ⇒ The detection limit of the photoacousticmeasurement is 20 to 100 times lower than the EU particulate limits. In fact, after only 33,000 miles, the amount of ash in the DPF may equal the amount of soot (prior to regeneration), and after 150,000 miles, nearly 80% of the material trapped in the DPF is ash. The program will only be executed when there is less than 60 grams of soot present in the filter. 5 After driving 40 miles of mixed highway/city driving, my readings are: Soot %: 74. 69 g) 393 Particle filter; soot mass measured 4. Because the ash is situated near the walls and rear of the DPF, soot particles are. With an optimal diesel particulate filter (DPF), soot emissions may be decreased to 0. The Diesel Particulate Filter needs to be heated to a very high temperature in order to burn off the particles of soot. When the soot level reaches a certain threshold, usually around 45%, the engine will actively try to reduce the levels. If the DPF Soot Accumulation increases to 115% and the system has not been able to regenerate, the “Continue Driving” message will display on the Driver Information Center (DIC). 129 ml Particle Filter Oil Ash Volume. The function will determine the soot mass and if it is above the upper limit this function will terminate and you will be instructed to replace the particulate filter. DPF is a best available technology to limit PM/PN Power range CO HC NOx PM PN kW 1/kWh FE=function(SAR, Exhaust mass flow, PCR, Soot Load , Cake porosity, Wall porosity) Soot Balance over DPF7 DPF Operation Modes DPF soot load, soot accumulation rate and rate of change in cake porosity are key parameters to. Particle Filter Carbon Mass (act. DPF system requires the material possessing high thermal shock resistance against an unexpected accident, such as an uncontrolled regeneration. One of the indices indicating the thermal shock resistance of the DPF is soot mass limit, which is an important factor determining the penalty of vehicle fuel consumption. The program will measure the soot mass, terminate the program if it is above the upper limi t, and request a change of filter. Might do my ECU if I remember tomorrow. 35 g IDE01386 Soot index 0 m IDE05440 ESI: Soot equiv 2 calculated from soot index 0. DPF soot loading over NEDC. 001 g/km or less. Due to the combustion, soot and other particulate matters are formed and pass through the exhaust gas. Obviously different types of driving will yield different results. This is sometimes known as the Soot Mass Limit (SML) or Maximum Soot Load (MSL). IDE00434 Particle filter: soot mass calculated 60. Soot on the DPF was determined by weighing the DPF module periodically. 35 g IDE04092 Diesel particle filter bank 1 3. The truck loading cycle is one of the most transient operations for non-road applications. 6 tdi cayc, 2011, 237. 1 The 2007 high- perature to oxidize soot trapped in the C-DPF to reduce. After soot was loaded onto DPF (8 ‐>10 ‐>…. Jaguar XF - DPF full, again! - CjonesXF. 0 Soot Load (g) Measured. Over a span of 50 h, soot on the DPF reached a balance point far below the soot mass limit of the DPF material. The DPF light has come on a couple of times in the last week. Small soot mass accumulation results in lower DPF pressure drop, while high soot mass accumulation would yield higher DPF pressure drop. I think the max is either 80g or 0. Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 00 g IDE07528-MAS12283 Coordinator releases for DPF regeneration-Components and systems fault-free Condition met. Particulate filter, soot mass calculated: 13. Mar 26, 2016 · View Threaded. 26 g IDE00436-ENG102397 Particle filter: kilometers since last regeneration-DIST_RGN 245 miles Address 01: Engine (03L 906 023 A) 09:35:58 IDE00019 Voltage terminal 30 14. The objective of this filter is to create cleaner / more eco friendly exhaust gases being released into the atmosphere. coatings in filter regeneration. As you drive, the car’s computer constantly monitors the soot level inside the filter to determine when regeneration is necessary. A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a filter that captures and stores exhaust soot (some refer to them as soot traps) in order to reduce emissions from diesel cars. Due to this soot is burned-off and is converted into a smaller amount of ash. such as when climbing inclines or maintaining the speed limit fully loaded on level ground, it can go negative. I dont think its completed yet, regen count is at 520 still. Below the lower limit physical exhaust pressure sensor from the turbine area, Code: 004D96 Soot mass=9. Sat 26 Mar 2016 20:30. Other simulations suggest that soot deposits also may tend to form at the tips of projecting crystals due to the axial velocity component of exhaust moving down the filter inlet channel. The other symptom is only a small amount of < 60kh/hr driving will trigger the car to fall over the limit of DPF fault (flashing coil and 50% power mode). Link to post. 0 TDI, not sure what it is for a 3. Summary of the new AT DPF for LDD applications, and resulting attributes. The standard practice for simple DPF models is to use a constant filtration efficiency calculated based on measurement of soot concentration upstream and downstream of a. These modular DPF filters are stackable, to tailor particulate matter reduction capacity to an engine’s specific needs. Click to get the latest Environment content. 7 liter engine. soot mass limit; or the wall thickness can be maintained at previous levels, but soot mass limit is increased 2-3 grams/liter while maintaining the same back pressure as the previous version. Particle Filter Carbon Mass (act. 1 Soot G/L: 0. Particulate filter ash load limit: 110. 1 Soot G/L: 0. 3 Diesel Particulate Filter Figure 3. So my dpf is 40ml full of ash and my limit is 175ml. Automated Soot Mass Limit (SML) determination with DPG Introduction The Maximum permissible Soot Load (MSL – sometimes known as Soot Mass Limit - SML) on a DPF before thermal damage may occur during regeneration is an important parameter – determining the regeneration frequency and hence impacting the fuel economy. 392 Particle filter; soot mass calculated 19. Diesel vehicles have become increasingly popular across the world as diesel engine technology continues to advance due to their superior fuel economy over petrol vehicles. 03 g IDE01410 Charge limit over-charge 50. The truck's programming will make many repeated attempts to regenerate the DPF, from a high soot mass level of 65% down to <10% when a cycle is complete. IDE00435 Particle filter: soot mass measured 3. such as when climbing inclines or maintaining the speed limit fully loaded on level ground, it can go negative. Figure 6 shows the soot mass filtration efficiency (determined using an AVL415 soot meter) measured on a DPG following low flow regenerations for a clean part and for. 08 g IDE00435-ENG101197 Particle filter: soot mass measured-MASS_SOOT_PHY_PF -3. Anyone that would like to correct me on this would be very welcome. the maximum temperature in the filter and the soot load. some early folks repeated a maximum number, which seems to have been pulled out of thin air by a dealer software vendor. 00000000 IDE06059 Particulate filter: oil ash mass 10. 2g---- soot measured minus-2. Particulate filter ash load limit: 110. X-ray measurement of soot mass by accumulating difference signal across sooted section. 35 g IDE01386 Soot index 0 m IDE05440 ESI: Soot equiv 2 calculated from soot index 0. For example, a high sulphur content diesel produces more particles. As my current mileage is 21498 miles (after the journey) and the ash load limit for the particulate filter is 80g, My filter should have have 80g of ash in it at about 153k miles if we don't assume that oil consumption/ash generation was much worse during running in (which it probably was). The truck loading cycle is one of the most transient operations for non-road applications. The DPF model calculates the filtration efficiency of a DPF failed at the threshold limit and provides the DPF-out soot emissions to be used as input to the sensor model. The program will only be executed when there is less than 60 grams of soot present in the filter. Particle Filter Carbon Mass (act. DPF soot loading over NEDC. If your trip is too short and the engine is then shut off, or the truck is put in park with the engine idling, an active regeneration process stops (at whatever soot level the DPF is at). 5 tankfulls I've ran through it, I've scene the soot. 98 g - current soot filling. 70g Ash mass=57. 1 m³/h IDE05357 Current temperature in NOx reducing catalytic converter 51. Given this relationship, one may use DPF pressure drop—signaled via a delta-P sensor—to calculate the soot mass in the filter. Soot mass limit: 14 g/l: 6 g/l: Weight: 0,8 kg/l: 0,4 kg/l: CAUTION WITH CORDIERITE: The lower heat resistance of cordierite results in faster overheating and even melting of the Diesel Particulate Filter. 00 g IDE06059 Particulate filter: oil ash mass 12. 93 g) 395 Particulate filter ash load limit 327. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are applied to modern exhaust gas systems in order to undercut the emission limit values for particulate mass and number. 26 g IDE00436-ENG102397 Particle filter: kilometers since last regeneration-DIST_RGN 245 miles Address 01: Engine (03L 906 023 A) 09:35:58 IDE00019 Voltage terminal 30 14. 0 Soot Load (g) Measured. • in the soot model. DPF system requires the material possessing high thermal shock resistance against an unexpected accident, such as an uncontrolled regeneration. The soot mass limit of the DPF is determined. The truck's programming will make many repeated attempts to regenerate the DPF, from a high soot mass level of 65% down to <10% when a cycle is complete. the car regens approx every 300 miles, but it regens from 21g soot down too 8g soot and then stops?the figures i have at the moment are oil/ash 11. In response to this, existing Euro Emissions Standards were tightened and greater. The 744K loader was operated to perform real world truck loading routines. In order to further increase the soot mass limits of R-SiC-DPF, this paper covers the attempts of IBIDEN to promote the sintering of the neck part of a SiC porous body using a sintering additive. the soot mass limit was kept constant at 12 g/L for the grains of 10 to 25 urn in size. During the course of trying to tune LMM, the DPF clogged up, and created yet another major headache with DIC warnings and the P2463 soot code. ), a forced regeneration while driving is also possible. This vehicle came in with the DPF light coming on during driving, as an older model the "soot mass" is not displayed but we can see the backpressure readings. 26 g IDE00436-ENG102397 Particle filter: kilometers since last regeneration-DIST_RGN 245 miles Address 01: Engine (03L 906 023 A) 09:35:58 IDE00019 Voltage terminal 30 14. The soot particles trapped in the filter will soon burn away and the warning light should switch off. Due to this soot is burned-off and is converted into a smaller amount of ash. Figure 8: DPF OBD monitoring concept. The DPF was sized to reduce the soot particle emissions of the engine equipped with EGR to below the stage IIIB limit while meeting the target clean filter pressure drop of 50 mbar at rated power. 11g From the numbers above, can anyone tell me what the capacity of the DPF is for ash? If 57g is close to full, then I understand why it may need to be replaced. 129 ml Particle Filter Oil Ash Volume. This video will show you exactly how to find the DPF soot content in your BMW. 8 X-ray response (a. In other words, the amount of ash is equal to the amount of soot at the maximum permissible soot load limit of 6 g / L. 1 Soot Load (g) Calculated. 70g Ash mass=57. Durability Study on Si-SiC Material for DPF (2) 2004-01-0951. Soot and other particles from diesel engines worsen the particulate matter pollution in the air and are harmful to health. MIRATECH’s filter construction also affords much greater soot trapping and “storage” capacity than other filters. Soot Accumulation-DPF problems. code 7313 function restriction due to received malfunction value U1113 upper limit exceeded calculated soot mass 4. 3 Soot G/L: 1. As you drive, the car’s computer constantly monitors the soot level inside the filter to determine when regeneration is necessary. New particulate filters can capture from 30% to greater than 95% of the harmful soot. This parameter represents the maximum amount of soot that can be stored inside the filter without damaging the component during regeneration. ) Particle Filter Carbon Mass (act. The other symptom is only a small amount of < 60kh/hr driving will trigger the car to fall over the limit of DPF fault (flashing coil and 50% power mode). - DPF external dimensions - DPF cell structure - Initial soot loading Parameters varied in the parametric analysis - Number of segments - Wall porosity: 42% to 70% - Cement thermal expansion coefficient: 25% to 400% of baseline value The soot mass limit is evaluated for axial stresses only. Particulate filter, soot mass calculated: 13. The soot mass limit of the DPF is determined. 001 g/km or less. We found that the soot mass limit of the re-crystallized SiC filter segments which consisted of the coarse and fine SiC powder was not lowered even if the grain size of the coarse power was increased. New particulate filters can capture from 30% to greater than 95% of the harmful soot. See label above visor. 11g From the numbers above, can anyone tell me what the capacity of the DPF is for ash? If 57g is close to full, then I understand why it may need to be replaced. Parametric analysis. Engine OFF. 5 After driving 40 miles of mixed highway/city driving, my readings are: Soot %: 74. The release of soot particles that are produced during co mbustion can be prevented by external engine measures. Once the ash reaches a maximum limit that's when the dpf has to be replaced. How to check DPF Soot Mass and do a force regenertion on Hyundai's diesel engines. the car regens approx every 300 miles, but it regens from 21g soot down too 8g soot and then stops?the figures i have at the moment are oil/ash 11. Below the lower limit physical exhaust pressure sensor from the turbine area, Code: 004D96 Soot mass=9. 001 g/km or less. If you set parameters in Carly like the above, you can keep an eye on the DPF The soot mass on mine builds to about 15g(roughly 250-300 km) then it will regen, the temp before filter will go up over 500c then it will start burning off and the soot figure starts to drop. One uses the differential pressure sensor to calculate the soot in the DPF and the other uses other engine data. So my dpf is 40ml full of ash and my limit is 175ml. There should be two soot values, calculated and measured. The vehicle does not have a soot level sensor to determine how much soot is in the DPF. The loaded DPF has to be regenerated by burning off the trapped soot, i. Figure 1 best illustrates the magnitude of the problem, as it presents the ash fraction of the total mass of material accumulated in the DPF (ash and soot), assuming a 6 g/L maximum soot load limit [2667]. Soot Mass Limit & regeneration The unique capability of the DPG to both load a filter with soot and regenerate it enables an automated cycle to establish the soot mass limit (SML) for a given filter. 8 X-ray response (a. 001 g/km or less. soot loaded pressure drop, 2) reduced thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up of a downstream SCR system, and 3) decreased soot mass limit requirements due to the expected trend towards engines operating at higher. Filter regeneration temperatures and back pressures are low, and stay well within OEM limits. The results verified the expected reduction of engine-out particulate mass (PM) emissions with increasing FAME content and the reduction. 35 g IDE04092 Diesel particle filter bank 1 3. Oct 26, 2020 · If the DPF Soot Accumulation increases to 140%, DTC P2463 (DPF Soot Accumulation) will set and a service regeneration will be required to clean the DPF. The Diesel Particulate Filter needs to be heated to a very high temperature in order to burn off the particles of soot. Fill level of DPF 150% Soot content of DPF 18. 7 liter engine. The truck's programming will make many repeated attempts to regenerate the DPF, from a high soot mass level of 65% down to <10% when a cycle is complete. Soot and other particles from diesel engines worsen the particulate matter pollution in the air and are harmful to health. 6 grams Ash content 0. How to check DPF Soot Mass and do a force regenertion on Hyundai's diesel engines. Sep 08, 2016 · What the diesel particulate filter light means. The function carries out a forced diesel particulate filter dynamic regeneration. 0 Quattro Mmi 2g high, sat nav , Bluetooth, Ami So my dpf is 40ml full of ash and my limit is 175ml. Obviously different types of driving will yield different results. to further the. some early folks repeated a maximum number, which seems to have been pulled out of thin air by a dealer software vendor. Then scroll down the list on the right hand window and select soot mass calculated and soot mass measured. If your trip is too short and the engine is then shut off, or the truck is put in park with the engine idling, an active regeneration process stops (at whatever soot level the DPF is at). The soot mass limit of the DPF is determined. With an optimal diesel particulate filter (DPF), soot emissions may be decreased to 0. If the DPF Soot Accumulation increases to 140%, DTC P2463 (DPF Soot Accumulation) will set and a service regeneration will be required to clean the DPF. The Diesel Particulate Filter needs to be heated to a very high temperature in order to burn off the particles of soot. DTC P2463. 0 Quattro Mmi 2g high, sat nav , Bluetooth, Ami So my dpf is 40ml full of ash and my limit is 175ml. X-ray measurement of soot mass by accumulating difference signal across sooted section. The diesel particle filter (DPF) is a device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine, which has been gradually proven to be a necessary measure to effectively control particle emissions from diesel engines []. The low PM mass emitted from the 2007 tion from the 1994 limit of 0. There are two "Soot" figures given by VAG DPF, "Calculated Soot Mass" and "Actual Soot Mass". soot mass in lab-loaded DPF • Linear regression shows good correlation to soot mass • Suggests detection limits of ~0. Figure 1 best illustrates the size of the problem because it represents the proportion of ash in the total mass of material accumulated in the DPF (ash and soot), assuming a maximum load of 6 g / L. Particulate filter, soot mass calculated: 13. 001 g/km or less. Below the lower limit physical exhaust pressure sensor from the turbine area, Code: 004D96 Soot mass=9. I was running the parameters on carly and observed the soot mass go down slowly to. The truck loading cycle is one of the most transient operations for non-road applications. 05 g - current ash filling. The standard practice for simple DPF models is to use a constant filtration efficiency calculated based on measurement of soot concentration upstream and downstream of a. Due to the combustion, soot and other particulate matters are formed and pass through the exhaust gas. 98 g - current soot filling. This significantly decreases the effectiveness of the filtration element and dramatically reduces the filter's soot storage capacity. 8 X-ray response (a. 2 mg/km -PM limit EU 6: 4. Sep 08, 2016 · What the diesel particulate filter light means. May 27, 2020 · Dpf problems. 70 grams –160% Soot Loading 1)P2463 Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) sets, 2)Reduced Engine Power,. 03 g IDE01410 Charge limit over-charge 50. If your trip is too short and the engine is then shut off, or the truck is put in park with the engine idling, an active regeneration process stops (at whatever soot level the DPF is at). A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a filter that captures and stores exhaust soot (some refer to them as soot traps) in order to reduce emissions from diesel cars. 93 g) 395 Particulate filter ash load limit 327. MIRATECH’s filter construction also affords much greater soot trapping and “storage” capacity than other filters. Control over the DPF inlet conditions allows the DPG to regenerate filters. There are two soot level readings in GDS2. A regeneration is triggered when the filter needs to be cleaned. The quality of the fuel also influences the formation of these particles. Over a span of 50 h, soot on the DPF reached a balance point far below the soot mass limit of the DPF material. Soot mass limit: 14 g/l: 6 g/l: Weight: 0,8 kg/l: 0,4 kg/l: CAUTION WITH CORDIERITE: The lower heat resistance of cordierite results in faster overheating and even melting of the Diesel Particulate Filter. Any faults in the air path system must be rectified before a service regeneration is carried out. DPF system requires the material possessing high thermal shock resistance against an unexpected accident, such as an uncontrolled regeneration. 1 g IDE06060 Particulate filter ash load limit 80. the soot mass limit was kept constant at 12 g/L for the grains of 10 to 25 urn in size. Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 0 Soot Load (g) Measured. 11g From the numbers above, can anyone tell me what the capacity of the DPF is for ash? If 57g is close to full, then I understand why it may need to be replaced. New particulate filters can capture from 30% to greater than 95% of the harmful soot. 40ml in 40,000 miles. This value increases to ~30 g, afterburning takes place (the amount of soot decreases, the amount of ash increases), the value. One uses the differential pressure sensor to calculate the soot in the DPF and the other uses other engine data. 2 mg/km -PM limit EU 6: 4. The objective of this filter is to create cleaner / more eco friendly exhaust gases being released into the atmosphere. A clean was given as option but the price was prohibitive. 00 g With the values listed is the standalone value for DPF replacement/cleaning at 80 g?. Figure 1 best illustrates the magnitude of the problem, as it presents the ash fraction of the total mass of material accumulated in the DPF (ash and soot), assuming a 6 g/L maximum soot load limit [2667]. Jaguar XF - DPF full, again! - CjonesXF. We found that the soot mass limit of the re-crystallized SiC filter segments which consisted of the coarse and fine SiC powder was not lowered even if the grain size of the coarse power was increased. Parametric analysis. A “good” idle time as a percent of operation is less than 20%. to further the.